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Entropy explained

In thermodynamics, entropy is a numerical quantity that shows that many physical processes can go in only one direction in time. For example, you can pour cream into coffee and mix it, but you cannot unmix it; you can burn a piece of wood, but you can't unburn it. The word 'entropy' has entered popular usage to refer a lack of order or predictability, or of a gradual decline into disorder. A more physical interpretation of thermodynamic entropy refers to spread of energy or. Entropy is a scientific concept, as well as a measurable physical property that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty. The term and the concept are used in diverse fields, from classical thermodynamics, where it was first recognized, to the microscopic description of nature in statistical physics, and to the principles of information theory Entropy is a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system. The value of entropy depends on the mass of a system. It is denoted by the letter S and has units of joules per kelvin. Entropy can have a positive or negative value

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-is-entropy-jeff-phillipsThere's a concept that's crucial to chemistry and physics. It helps explain why phys.. the entropy of a given probability distribution of messages or symbols, and; the entropy rate of a stochastic process. (The rate of self-information can also be defined for a particular sequence of messages or symbols generated by a given stochastic process: this will always be equal to the entropy rate in the case of a stationary process. Entropy is the measure of disorder: the higher the disorder, the higher the entropy of the system. Reversible processes do not increase the entropy of the universe. However, irreversible systems do

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Introduction to entropy - Wikipedi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Entropy is one of the few quantities in the physical sciences that require a particular direction for time, sometimes called an arrow of time. As one goes forward in time, the second law of thermodynamics says, the entropy of an isolated system can increase, but not decrease In traditional thermodynamics, entropy is a measure of the amount of energy in a closed system that is no longer available to effect changes in that system

2 Entropy For information theory, the fundamental value we are interested in for a random variable X is the entropy of X. We'll consider X to be a discrete random variable. The entropy can be thought of as any of the following intuitive de nitions: 1. The amount of randomness in X (in bits) 2 Entropy, the measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work. Because work is obtained from ordered molecular motion, the amount of entropy is also a measure of the molecular disorder, or randomness, of a system Entropy is a very weird and misunderstood quantity. Hopefully, this video can shed some light on the disorder we find ourselves in..._____.. Entropy is a concept used in Physics, mathematics, computer science (information theory) and other fields of science. You may have a look at Wikipedia to see the many uses of entropy. Yet, its definition is not obvious for everyone. Plato, with his cave, knew that metaphors are good ways for explaining deep ideas Clausius explained entropy as the transformation content in contrast to an earlier view that was based on the theories of Newton that heat was an indestructible particle having a mass. Later an entropy was given a statistical basis by different scientists named Ludwig Boltzmann, Josiah Willard Gibbs and James Clerk Maxwell

As mentioned above, Entropy can be defined as randomness, or in the world of probability as uncertainty or unpredictability. Before we deep dive into the concept of Entropy, it is important to understand the concept of Information theory that was presented by Claude Shannon in his mathematical paper in the 19th century In classical thermodynamics, entropy is a property of a thermodynamic system that expresses the direction or outcome of spontaneous changes in the system. The term was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in the mid-nineteenth century from the Greek word τρoπή (transformation) to explain the relationship of the internal energy that is available or unavailable for transformations in form of heat. The solution is the sun. The light that arrives from the sun is mainly in the visible range. Plants make photosynthesis with this light and split the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air into carbon (C) and oxygen (O2). In that process, some energy (photons) get absorbed

Entropy - Wikipedi

  1. Entropy is normally described as a measure of disorder but I don't think that's helpful. Here's a better descr... About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy.
  2. read. Cross-Entropy (also known as log-loss) is one of the most commonly used loss function for classification problems
  3. Binary Cross-Entropy / Log Loss. where y is the label (1 for green points and 0 for red points) and p(y) is the predicted probability of the point being green for all N points.. Reading this formula, it tells you that, for each green point (y=1), it adds log(p(y)) to the loss, that is, the log probability of it being green.Conversely, it adds log(1-p(y)), that is, the log probability of it.
  4. Shannon's Entropy leads to a function which is the bread and butter of an ML practitioner — the cross entropy that is heavily used as a loss function in classification and also the KL divergence which is widely used in variational inference. To understand entropy, we need to start thinking in terms of the bits. Bits are either 0 or 1
  5. Physics of Entropy EXPLAINED and MADE EASY - YouTube
  6. The entropy of an object is a measure of the amount of energy which is unavailable to do work. Entropy is also a measure of the number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have. In this sense, entropy is a measure of uncertainty or randomness
  7. 057 - EntropyIn this video Paul Andersen explains that entropy is simply the dispersion of matter or energy. He begins with a series of video that show the.

What Is Entropy? - ThoughtC

What is entropy? - Jeff Phillips - YouTub

Entropy (information theory) - Wikipedi

We get entropy in terms of bits when the base of the log in the entropy equation is $2$. For some other technology, e.g., some esoteric memory based on tri-state devices, we would use log of base $3$ in the entropy equation A cornerstone of information theory is the idea of quantifying how much information there is in a message. More generally, this can be used to quantify the information in an event and a random variable, called entropy, and is calculated using probability

What is Entropy? - Definition, Law & Formula - Science

Entropy is a measure of the number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have. The entropy of an object can also be a measure of the amount of energy which is unavailable to do work... Entropy definition is - a measure of the unavailable energy in a closed thermodynamic system that is also usually considered to be a measure of the system's disorder, that is a property of the system's state, and that varies directly with any reversible change in heat in the system and inversely with the temperature of the system; broadly : the degree of disorder or uncertainty in a system Entropy is defined as 'lack of order and predictability', which seems like an apt description of the difference between the two scenarios. When is information useful? Information is only useful when it can be stored and/or communicated. We have all learned this lesson the hard way when we have forgotten to save a document we were working on The entropy also increases as the pressure or concentration becomes smaller. Entropies of gases are much larger than those of condensed phases. The absolute entropy of a pure substance at a given temperature is the sum of all the entropy it would acquire on warming from absolute zero (where S=0) to the particular temperature Introduction to entropy, and how entropy relates to the number of possible states for a system. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked

Entropy (arrow of time) - Wikipedi

  1. The entropy, in this context, is the expected number of bits of information contained in each message, taken over all possibilities for the transmitted message. For example, suppose the transmitter wanted to inform the receiver of the result of a 4-person tournament, where some of the players are better than others
  2. Entropy. When the topic of /dev/random and /dev/urandom come up, you always hear this word: Entropy. Everyone seems to have their own analogy for it. So why not me? I like to think of Entropy as Random juice. It is juice, required for random to be more random
  3. Cross-entropy is a measure of the difference between two probability distributions for a given random variable or set of events. You might recall that information quantifies the number of bits required to encode and transmit an event. Lower probability events have more information, higher probability events have less information
  4. Entropy, so far, had been a concept in physics. Namely, it is the (log of the) number of microstates or microscopic configurations. In colloquial terms, if the particles inside a system have many..

Entropy Explained was a DVD documentary that was released on 10 January 2011. See also: Title cards • DVD special features • Easter egg Entropy Regularization is a type of regularization used in reinforcement learning. For on-policy policy gradient based methods like A3C , the same mutual reinforcement behaviour leads to a highly-peaked $\pi\left(a\mid{s}\right)$ towards a few actions or action sequences, since it is easier for the actor and critic to overoptimise to a small portion of the environment

Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy | explained in

Entropy Explained . Documentary, Short | Video Add a Plot » Director: Thomas Guerrier. Writer: Simon Guerrier. Star: Phillip Trowga. Added to Watchlist. Add to Watchlist. View production, box office, & company info January 2021 TV Calendar: New and Returning Show Entropy explained, beautifully, in comic-book form Cory Doctorow 9:00 am Wed Oct 21, 2015 Nick Sousanis became a Boing Boing favorite for his 2015 doctoral dissertation in graphic novel form, and.. Entropy must be one of the if not the most misunderstood physical concept out there (along with Planck metrics like Planck energy or Planck length). Entropy is commonly used and written about by so many people that clearly lack the understanding of it that this blog post is a refreshing change Finally we arrive at our quantitative measure of entropy. If you're symbols it is on average how many questions do you expect to ask to determine a symbol from Machine 2 and this can be explained nicely with an analogy let's assume instead we want to build machine 1 and machine 2 and we can generate symbols by bouncing a disk off a.

Entropy Explained - Atheis

Software Entropy Explained: Causes, Effects, and Remedies - Adam Wasserman Entropy in software - Jimmy Bogard Software Rot, Entropy and the Broken Window Theory - Umer Mansoo Information entropy is a concept from information theory.It tells how much information there is in an event.In general, the more certain or deterministic the event is, the less information it will contain. More clearly stated, information is an increase in uncertainty or entropy. The concept of information entropy was created by mathematician Claude Shannon Hence, we are exactly at the peak of the entropy diagram and thus, the entropy of that split area is 1. And now, let's also determine the entropy values for the decision boundary in the bottom scatter plot. Here, the probabilities aren't so convenient that we can simply look up the entropy in the graph. So, we have to actually calculate them However, in any overall system, the entropy must increase, otherwise the second law of thermodynamics is violated; so how can this decrease in entropy be explained? As for the teapot in the Example 2.15.1, this decrease in entropy only reflects what is happening in one part of the system The degree to which a system has no Data Mining - Pattern is known as entropy. A high-entropy source is completely chaotic, is Data Mining - (Prediction|Guess), and is called true. Entropy is a function Information that satisfies: where: p1p2 is the probability of event 1 and event

Entropy controls how a Decision Tree decides to split the data. It actually effects how a Decision Tree draws its boundaries. firstly we need to find out the fraction of examples that are present. Cross Entropy Loss Explained with Python Examples October 15, 2020 by Ajitesh Kumar · Leave a comment In this post, you will learn the concepts related to cross-entropy loss function along with Python and which machine learning algorithms use cross entropy loss function as an optimization function Remember in your various travails, that entropy is what the equations define it to be. There is no such thing as an entropy, without an equation that defines it. Entropy was born as a state variable in classical thermodynamics. But the advent of statistical mechanics in the late 1800's created a new look for entropy

  1. Entropy. So rather than delving deeply into the Special Theory of Relativity, we're looking at basic thermodynamics. Now first, awkwardly, entropy isn't a process, so you can't reverse it
  2. Enthalpy and entropy are denoted by the symbols E and S respectively. The relationship between enthalpy and entropy in Gibbs free energy formula is explained by the experts at BYJU'S
  3. In Tenet, the ability to reverse entropy is what causes time inversion.When you are inverted, you move backwards in time. From your perception, you are moving as normal, while the rest of.
  4. It's called Binary Cross-Entropy Loss because it sets up a binary classification problem between \(C' = 2\) classes for every class in \(C\), as explained above. So when using this Loss, the formulation of Cross Entroypy Loss for binary problems is often used
  5. Tenet Really Explained, For Real This Time. This core idea is known as inversion, and it's possible thanks to a new technology that can reverse the entropy of people and objects,.

entropy Definition and Equation Britannic

  1. So cross-entropy in its own weird way gives us a measure of the difference between two probability distributions. If the difference is zero (i.e. you and your friend both talked about Gavaskar 50 % of the time and 25% Hadlee and 12.5% for the remaining 2), then the cross-entropy becomes exactly equal to entropy else it will always be greater
  2. I've now supplied you with two definitions of the state variable entropy and it's s for entropy the thermodynamic definition said that the change in entropy is equal to the heat added to a system divided by the temperature at which the heat is added so if I obviously if the temperature is changing while we add the heat which is normally the case we're going to do a little bit of calculus and.
  3. Information entropy for a discrete random variable X with probabil-ity mass function P(X)is defined asH(X)= E[−logP(X)]. When calculating the entropy from a large dataset, the most typical ap-proach is to use the empirical distribution of X. We refer to the entropy calculated with this approach as empirical entropy. Empiri
  4. Software Entropy Explained: Causes, Effects, and Remedies. This article is aimed at the software developer or project manager who is curious as to what software entropy is, the practical effects on their work, and the underlying factors contributing to its growth
  5. In cross-entropy, as the name suggests, we focus on the number of bits required to explain the difference in two different probability distributions. The best case scenario is that both distributions are identical, in which case the least amount of bits are required i.e. simple entropy. In mathematical terms

What is Entropy? - YouTub

Entropy is a thermodynamic property, like temperature, pressure and volume but, unlike them, it can not easily be visualised. Introducing entropy. The concept of entropy emerged from the mid-19th century discussion of the efficiency of heat engines The entropy of a substance, its entropy change from 0 K to any T, is a measure of the energy that has been incrementally (reversibly) dispersed from the surroundings to the substance at the T of each increment, i.e., integration from 0 K to T of C p /T dT (+ q/T for any phase change) Entropy - A Basic Understa nding. Entropy is a concept some find difficult to grasp, but in truth it does not deserve such notoriety. Look upon Entropy as a road map that connects thermodynamic situations. This tutorial hopes to shed some light on this subject, by approaching it from first principles The mess of the messy room. The most common way entropy is explained is as disorder or randomness.A clean room, for example, has less entropy than that same room after it hasn't been tidied for. The entropy change of the surroundings and the entropy change of the system itself. This connects to how the second law and cosmology are related, which is explained well in the video below. Problems. Predict the entropy changes of the converse of SO 2 to SO 3: 2 SO 2 (g).

In information theory, entropy is a measure of randomness or uncertainty in the system. It is crucial in the theory of entanglement (e.g. Schumacher 1996) or quantum communication (Ohya and Volovich 2003), (Ozawa and Yuen 1993), (Holevo 1998) The story of our universe is that of climbing Mt. Entropy, beginning in the fiery low-entropic depths of the Big Bang, and making its way to the summit, a cold and barren state of thermal equilibrium. Both the base and the peak of Mt. Entropy are utterly inhospitable to life Entropy refer to the second law of thermodynamic (in Physics). It states that, for a closed, independent system, the amount of disorder doesn't decrease overtime. It can stay stable or increasing. The idea of software entropy was coined by the book Object-Oriented Software Engineering The change in heat divided by the absolute temperature is the entropy change of the process. Defined this way, the Second Law can be restated as: In any closed system, the entropy of the system will either remain constant or increase

High-temperature properties of the Fe 34 Cr 34 Ni 14 Al 14

Changes in local entropy are explained best by connectivity strength, then receptor density Solids, Liquids, and Gases Perhaps the most obvious feature of the table of molecular entropies is a general increase in the molar entropy as we move from solids to liquids to gases. In a solid, the molecules are only capable of restricted vibrations around a fixed point, but when a solid melts, the molecules, though still hampered by their mutual attraction, are much freer to move around The entropy of a system is the sum of the entropies of all changes within the system. • The entropy change of ice melting at 273.15 K is ΔS m = ΔH m /T = 21.99 J/(mol K). The entropy change of water vaporization at 373.15 K is ΔS v = ΔH v /T = 108.95 J/(mol K). Entropy, symbol S, is related to energy, but it a different aspect of energy. This concept was developed over a long period of time. Human experienced chemical and physical changes that cannot be explained by energy alone

Here the entropy is unchanged. The reversibility of a process is associated with the resulting entropy change, i.e., a process is reversible if, and only if, it leaves the entropy of the system invariant. Therefore, the march of the arrow of time towards thermodynamic equilibrium is simply the growing spread of quantum entanglement $\begingroup$ So entropy increase leads to more information, which is consistent with the evolution of the universe from a disordered plasma to one that contains lots of order. No, information is conserved, and so does not increase. Entropy is incrasing and this means that the evolution goes from ordered universe towards disordered universe, so exacly the contrary of what you are saying

Entropy is a measure of chaos, of the degree of disorder. The higher the entropy, the more disordered, the messier things are. Your bedroom, for example, is likely in a high entropy state of being, while your parents' room is relatively low entropy. [That was my input, sorry.] Humpty Dumpty before the great fall was low entropy Lots of great answers here, which is good, because it saves me having to go remind myself of all the details about Shannon and put them here. So I'm just going to put the description that was most useful to me in terms of understanding information.. Information Entropy is not often explained well, yet it is quite straightforward to understand and that understanding can be quite helpful in everyday life. Here we explain Information Entropy from scratch using simple mathematics and examples from everyday life, in particular deriving from first principles the best method of playing the game Twenty Questions

the second law of thermodynamics one statement of it is that the entropy of the universe only increases and I put an exclamation mark here because it seems like a very profound statement and on a lot of levels it is and just to get us in the right frame of mind I have this image here from the Hubble telescope of of the night sky and each of these dots these are not stars these are galaxies. Decision Trees are one of the best known supervised classification methods.As explained in previous posts, A decision tree is a way of representing knowledge obtained in the inductive learning process. The space is split using a set of conditions, and the resulting structure is the tree. A tree is composed of nodes, and those nodes are chosen looking for the optimum split of the features Entropy Explained [N]o one really knows what entropy really is, so in a debate you will always have the advantage. - John von Neumann. So here's a quick take on entropy. It's usually defined as dH/T - that is, change in heat energy (dH) divided by temperature (T) And this is also explained by the principle Heisenberg uncertainty: indeed, if for example we had to have more information (so less entropy) the momentum of the particle, there is less information.

'Tenet': The Movie's Time Travelling Ending, Explained

Cross Entropy is the sum of the negatives of a log of all probabilities. Let's start with an example: What turns a product into sums? If you were thinking Log then you are right., because ln(a*b*c) = ln(a) + ln(b) + ln(c) Also, Ln of a number between 0 <-> 1 is always negative numbers. Eg: ln(0.3) = -1.20 and ln(1) = 0 If we think of a distribution as the tool we use to encode symbols, then entropy measures the number of bits we'll need if we use the correct tool $y$. This is optimal, in that we can't encode the symbols using fewer bits on average. In contrast, cross entropy is the number of bits we'll need if we encode symbols from $y$ using the wrong tool $\hat{y}$

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A simple explanation of entropy in decision trees

The Entropy of a Substance at a Temperature, T. The entropy of a substance at any temperature T is not complex or mysterious. It is simply a measure of the total amount of energy that had to be dispersed within the substance (from the surroundings) from 0 K to T, incrementally and reversibly and divided by T for each increment, so the substance could exist as a solid or (with additional. Cross-Entropy and KL divergence are incredibly useful in machine learning. Often, we want one distribution to be close to another. For example, we might want a predicted distribution to be close to the ground truth. KL divergence gives us a natural way to do this, and so it shows up everywhere. Entropy and Multiple Variable Entropy is maximized (and predictability minimized) when all outcomes are equally likely. Shannon Entropy, (H) is given by the following equation: [H = -\sum_{i=1}^np_i\log_2 p_i

Entropy Equation Definition, Summary, Examples & Unit

According to Shannon's brilliant theory, the concept of information strongly depends on the context. For instance, my full first name is Lê Nguyên.But in western countries, people simply call me Lê.Meanwhile, in Vietnam, people rather use my full first name Information theory - Information theory - Entropy: Shannon's concept of entropy can now be taken up. Recall that the table Comparison of two encodings from M to S showed that the second encoding scheme would transmit an average of 5.7 characters from M per second. But suppose that, instead of the distribution of characters shown in the table, a long series of As were transmitted In classical physics, the entropy of a physical system is proportional to the quantity of energy no longer available to do physical work.Entropy is central to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that in an isolated system any activity increases the entropy.; In quantum mechanics, von Neumann entropy extends the notion of entropy to quantum systems by means of the density matrix Entropy is a measure of the energy dispersal in the system. We see evidence that the universe tends toward highest entropy many places in our lives. A campfire is an example of entropy. The solid wood burns and becomes ash, smoke and gases, all of which spread energy outwards more easily than the solid fuel. Ice melting, salt or sugar dissolving, making popcorn and boiling water for tea are. When he makes such assumptions, however, he is denying his own theory, which says that all things can be explained in terms of presently observable laws and processes. He is really resorting to creationism, but refuses to acknowledge a Creator. Entropy and Disorder. A second way of stating the entropy law is in terms of statistical thermodynamics

What is the original formula for the second law of

Cross Entropy Explained What is Cross Entropy for Dummies

An adiabatic process (one which does not generate any heat) from state A to state B is therefore only possible if it is entropy increasing: S Θ (A) ≤ S Θ (B).. This definition, of thermodynamic entropy, depends upon cyclic processes that can reach the equality, which are called reversible processes. The existence of such processes between thermodynamic states allows the entropy differences. Genetic Entropy Explained The study of genetic entropy may be daunting to the non-scientific. However the concept is of immense importance in that it can be used to time our past, predict our future and alter our worldview Permutation Entropy (PE) is a robust time series tool which provides a quantification measure of the complexity of a dynamic system by capturing the order relations between values of a time series and extracting a probability distribution of the ordinal patterns (see Henry and Judge, 2019). Among its main features, the PE approach

Entropy (classical thermodynamics) - Wikipedi

EntroPy is now DEPRECATED because it could not be installed using pip (see below). Please use the AntroPy package instead! Important. EntroPy CANNOT BE INSTALLED WITH PIP OR CONDA. There is already a package called entropy on the PyPi repository, which should NOT be mistaken with the current package If entropy is high (encoding size is big on average), it means we have many message types with small probabilities. Hence, every time a new message arrives, you'd expect a different type than previous messages. You may see it as a disorder or uncertainty or unpredictability Introduction This blog is an introduction on the KL-divergence, aka relative entropy. The blog gives a simple example for understand relative entropy, and therefore I will not attempt to re-write. Single-molecule approaches for probing the free energy of confinement for polymers in a nanopore environment are critical for the development of nanopore biosensors. We developed a laser-based nanopore heating approach to monitor the free energy profiles of such a single-molecule sensor. Using this approach, we measure the free energy profiles of two distinct polymers, polyethylene glycol and. Entropy is a measure of the degree of randomness or disorder of a system. Entropy is an easy concept to understand when thinking about everyday situations. The entropy of a room that has been recently cleaned and organized is low. As time goes by, it likely will become more disordered and thus its entropy will increase (see Figure below )

Negative Entropy: Jan Robert Leegte’s Remake of RobertGamesProduction (u/GamesProduction) - RedditNew Alloy Is As Light As Aluminum, As Strong as Titanium

Entropy explained - without formulas - hippie-nerd

The pincer movement is a military maneuver that involves attacking an enemy from both sides simultaneously, closing like a lobster or crab's claw. Tenet 's pincer involves two different teams. Entropy is simply the quantitative measure of disorder or randomness in a system. It's difficult to wrap our heads around, but this video will help you understand it- https://youtu.be/YM-uykVfq_ In particular, it explains that entropy only increases when the surface area of the black hole changes, not the volume. explained. The idea had been considered but never been seen Basically, entropy measures in how many different possible ways you could configure your physical system, such that it wouldn't change the essential features that you care about. Let me explain by thinking about a deck of cards. We have a standard..

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A better description of entropy - YouTub

BLOG. August 7, 2016 AT 3:00 am Entropy Explained, With Shee Second , entropy is the measure of energy dispersal, as a function of temperature.In chemistry, the kind of energy that entropy measures is motional energy — of molecules that are translating (moving and colliding), rotating, and vibrating (atoms in a molecule moving as though the bonds were springs) — and phase change energy (enthalpy of fusion or vaporization)

Entropy, Cross-Entropy, and KL-Divergence Explained! by

I assume entropy was mentioned in the context of building decision trees.. To illustrate, imagine the task of learning to classify first-names into male/female groups. That is given a list of names each labeled with either m or f, we want to learn a model that fits the data and can be used to predict the gender of a new unseen first-name.. name gender ----- Now we want to predict Ashley f the. Entropy Introduction. In thermodynamics, entropy is explained as a state of uncertainty or randomness. In statistics, we borrow this concept as it easily applies to calculating probabilities. When we calculate statistical entropy, we are quantifying the amount o When 0, no smoothing occurs. When > 0, we compute the loss between the predicted labels and a smoothed version of the true labels, where the smoothing squeezes the labels towards 0.5. Larger values of label_smoothing correspond to heavier smoothing. (Optional) Type of tf.keras.losses.Reduction to apply to loss Cross entropy measures entropy between two probability distributions. Cross entropy will find the difference between the actual probability for default, which is available for us through training dataset, and the predicted probability for default, which is required to be calculated by the model

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